Copyright 2011 - 2022 Jon Danielsson. This code is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. The GNU General Public License is available at: https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Last updated August 2016

```
p = csvread('stocks.csv',1,0);
p = p(:,[1,2]); % consider first two stocks
y = diff(log(p))*100; % convert prices to returns
y(:,1)=y(:,1)-mean(y(:,1)); % subtract mean
y(:,2)=y(:,2)-mean(y(:,2));
T = length(y);
```

Last updated June 2018

```
import numpy as np
p = np.loadtxt('stocks.csv',delimiter=',',skiprows=1)
p = p[:,[0,1]] # consider first two stocks
y = np.diff(np.log(p), n=1, axis=0)*100 # calculate returns
y[:,0] = y[:,0]-np.mean(y[:,0]) # subtract mean
y[:,1] = y[:,1]-np.mean(y[:,1])
T = len(y[:,0])
```

Last updated June 2018

```
%% create a matrix to hold covariance matrix for each t
EWMA = nan(T,3);
lambda = 0.94;
S = cov(y); % initial (t=1) covar matrix
EWMA(1,:) = S([1,4,2]); % extract var and covar
for i = 2:T % loop though the sample
S = lambda*S+(1-lambda)* y(i-1,:)'*y(i-1,:);
EWMA(i,:) = S([1,4,2]); % convert matrix to vector
end
EWMArho = EWMA(:,3)./sqrt(EWMA(:,1).*EWMA(:,2)); % calculate correlations
```

Last updated June 2018

```
EWMA = np.full([T,3], np.nan)
lmbda = 0.94
S = np.cov(y, rowvar = False)
EWMA[0,] = S.flatten()[[0,3,1]]
for i in range(1,T):
S = lmbda * S + (1-lmbda) * np.transpose(np.asmatrix(y[i-1]))* np.asmatrix(y[i-1])
EWMA[i,] = [S[0,0], S[1,1], S[0,1]]
EWMArho = np.divide(EWMA[:,2], np.sqrt(np.multiply(EWMA[:,0],EWMA[:,1])))
print(EWMArho)
```

Last updated August 2016

```
[par, Ht] = o_mvgarch(y,2, 1,1,1);
Ht = reshape(Ht,4,T)';
%% Ht comes from o_mvgarch as a 3D matrix, this transforms it into a 2D matrix
OOrho = Ht(:,3) ./ sqrt(Ht(:,1) .* Ht(:,4));
%% OOrho is a vector of correlations
```

Last updated July 2020

```
## Python does not have a proper OGARCH package at present
```

Last updated June 2022

```
%%The function 'dcc' in MFE toolbox currently cannot work in MATLAB R2022a.
%%The function 'dcc' use one MATLAB Optimization toolbox function 'fmincon'.
%%The changes of 'fmincon' cause this problem.
%%This block can work on Optimization 8.3
[p, lik, Ht] = dcc(y,1,1,1,1);
Ht = reshape(Ht,4,T)';
DCCrho = Ht(:,3) ./ sqrt(Ht(:,1) .* Ht(:,4));
%% DCCrho is a vector of correlations
```

Last updated July 2020

```
## Python does not have a proper DCC package at present
```

Last updated June 2018

```
plot([EWMArho,OOrho,DCCrho])
legend('EWMA','DCC','OGARCH','Location','SouthWest')
```

Last updated July 2020

```
## Python does not have a proper OGARCH/DCC package at present
```